Stem Cells are certainly the newest area of study as it pertains to neurodegenerative diseases. There are many options in this area. However, it is important to realize that the death / loss of motor neurons can be equated to a forest burning down. The role that stem cells would play is to plant more trees, but we still need to stop the fire.
Stem cells can be used as an adjunct to therapies.
Mesenchymal Bone Marrow Stem Cells have the ability to specialize into neuronal cells and can be used to replace damaged motor neurons.
Embryonic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells have the potential to specialize into any type of cell. However, they are not legal in the US and you must travel to receive treatment.
Stem cells from umbilical cord blood are hematopoetic stem cells (like adult bone marrow stem cells), meaning that they make blood cells. Receiving a cord blood transplant is similar to receiving a bone marrow transplant but less risky
We already have cells in our immune system which kill off invaders and by implanting more of these, we can hope to increase their strength.
Multipotent Stem Cells derived from fat tissue. A lot of ALS patients lose a lot of weight so this may not be the best option for them as not much fat is available.
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